Culture & Art - India
- States of India : India is a federation of States which have each one a Parliament and a government. There are 28 major States, 7 territories, and the Delhi's capital territory.
- Geography : Presents a varied and diverse landscape ranging from snow-clad mountain ranges, deserts to plains, hills and plateaus. Climate ranges from equatorial in the far south, to tundra in the Himalayan altitudes. India has a long coastline of over seven thousand kilometres, most of which lies on a peninsula that protrudes into the Indian Ocean. India is bounded in the west by the Arabian Sea, and in the east by the Bay of Bengal.
- Demographic : India is the second most populous country in the world, with only China having a larger population. Language, religion, and caste are major determinants of social and political organisation within the highly diverse Indian population today. Its biggest metropolitan agglomerations are Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), and Chennai (formerly Madras).
- Languages : India is home to two major linguistic families, those of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian-derived languages. The Indian constitution recognises twenty-three official languages. Hindi along with English are the languages used by the Central Government for official purposes. Two classical languages native to the land are Sanskrit and Tamil. The number of mother tongues in India is as high as 1652.
- Religions : Although 80.5% of the people are Hindus, India is also home to the third largest population of Muslims in the world (13.4%; see Islam in India) after Indonesia and Pakistan. Other smaller religious minorities include Christians (2.33%; see Christianity in India), Sikhs (1.84%), Buddhists (0.76%), Jains (0.40%), Jews (see Jews in India), Parsis, Ahmadi, and Bahá'ís.
"The way of non-violence requires much more courage than of violence" - Mahatma GANDHI
|Prime minister||Manmohan Singh|
|Official languages||hindi, anglais, et 17 langues officiellement reconnues|
|Total||3 287 590 km²|
|Total (2004)||1 065 070 607|
|Independance||(The United Kingdom)|
|Declared||15 août 1947|
|Time zone||UTC +5.30|
History of India
The painted rock shelters of the stone age of Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh constitute the known oldest traces of the human establishment in India. The first permanent installations known appear 9000 years ago. Then, a civilization, one of oldest known to date, develop in the valley of Indus and reached its apogee between –2600 and -1900. Towards -1500, of the Aryan tribes from Central Asia would have emigrated in India but this assumption is refused by certain which sees a continuity of the vedic culture rather. Recent genetic studies did not make it possible to take a decision on its two positions, some confirming, others refuting the theory of the Aryan invasion. With the Life front century. J.-C., a wind of religious reform rises, Buddhism and the jainism flowers, being added to the richness of the Indian culture.
The traditional hindouism develops starting from the vedic culture. The first millenium sees many independent kingdoms developing strongly, some acquiring an imperial stature. The Hindu dynasty of Gupta dominates the period that the historians regard as a "golden age" of India and Maurya, and in particular the buddhist emperor Ashoka, contributes largely to the Indian cultural landscape. Arts, mathematics, technology, astrology, the religion and philosophy open out thanks to the royal patronage., and the territory of the Delhi capital. Geography Surrounded by Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, India has 15 000 km of borders. Large rivers and rivers, such Gange, Brahmapoutra, Yamunâ, Godâvarî, Narmadâ, Kaveri cross the country. Demography India is the country more populated in the world after China.
During the second millenium, the majority of the areas of India are subjugated with a Moslem capacity, the sultanate of Delhi then the Empire moghol, although some Hindu kingdoms, like the kingdom of Vijayanâgara, remain and thrive. After the arrival of the European tradesmen, the Portuguese, the French and the English benefit from dilution and of the bursting of the capacity through sub-continent and colonize it. In 1857, the revolt of Cipayes, Indian soldiers with the service of the European powers, is transformed into a popular rising against the power of the nglish Company of the Eastern Indies which a many Indians regard as their first unfruitful war of independence.
After the revolt, the Indian movements for independence start to require a complete independence. August 15, 1947, India reaches finally this independence while undergoing the Partition. After independence, India takes part in four wars against Pakistan pulled by the problem of the Cashmere. From 1975 to 1977, the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declares the state emergency, limiting the civic rights and entrainant the setting in détension of the many people without lawsuit. The destruction of Babri Masjid d' Ayodhya in 1992 involves several intercommunity conflicts in Western India. In 1999, India mobilizes its troops in Kargil with the Cashmere to push back infiltrations of islamist terrorists come from Pakistan.
|26 January||Republic Day||India became a republic on this day in 1950|
|15 August||Independence Day||India gained independence from the British Empire on this day in 1947|
|2 October||Gandhi Jayanti||The birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi|
Flag of India
The flag of India is called Triranga or tricolour. It is composed of three horizontal lines of equal width: saffron above, white in the medium and green for that of bottom. In the center of the white band one is will chakra blue (wheel) comprising 24 rays. The report/ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two thirds. The color saffron is supposed to symbolize courage - but it is also the traditional color of the hindouism, that which choose the sadhus for their costume, the white color is that of peace, the purity, and the green color, that of prosperity, the color of the heroes in the kathakali.
Will chakra - a wheel in rotation - was to represent in the beginning the wheel of Gandhi, i.e. the tool emblematic of the car sufficiency. It was replaced later by Chakra d' Ashoka, a Buddhist symbol, under the influence of Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, the writer out-caste of the Indian constitution which ends up converting with Buddhism, not believing more in the capacity of the hindouism to reform and offer a worthy place to his companions in misfortune. This "wheel of the law" formed part of the emblems of the emperor of maurya Ashoka which reigned on India of north in IIIe front century. J.-C. The flag was officially adopted by the constituent assembly of India on July 22, 1947.